The church is often like a ship at sea, tossed with tempests, and not comforted: we may have Christ for us, yet wind and tide against us; but it is a comfort to Christ’s disciples in a storm, that their Master is in the heavenly mount, interceding for them—Matthew Henry
In between the memories of yesterday’s glory and the promises of tomorrow’s dreams are storms. In yesterday’s memories crowds are gathering, lingering with family and friends on green grass, with the miracle of multiplied blessings. In tomorrow’s dreams there are still the unknowns. Maybe a new day is coming when the yoke of oppression is finally thrown off. Maybe a new time is coming when your life will finally get to where you’ve always wanted it to go. The empty nester, with the miracle of parenting and all the memories of childrearing and the dreams of what life will be like for their child behind them, is there now wondering what adventures life may yet hold for them. The young person about to go off to college is there. Summers came and summers went and childhood turned into adulthood and now, as Neil Young sang, “It’s almost time to live your dreams, my boy.”
The young man, with a starched white oxford shirt and a new briefcase, on his first day at work, is there. Yesterday’s miracles of getting into college, of marching up to get that diploma, of landing the sales job now seem sweet. The dream of climbing the career ladder seems like a fantastic challenge. The new retiree is there. The miracle of moving through all of the stages of childrearing and of building a career have left you with baskets of joy and even pride. But now, travel and the pursuit of what you have always really wanted to do with life is before you.
But always between yesterday’s miracles and tomorrow’s dreams lay the unpredictable sea and the inevitable storm.
God’s Word calls us to see the storm. Maybe the Holy Spirit will name the storm that you are in. But my prayer is that we will see Jesus as the One who was there in yesterday’s miracles, who is in tomorrow’s dreams, and who is walking on the water of your storm. He is Lord of the Storm. We see in this passage:
Immediately he made his disciples get into the boat and go before him to the other side, to Bethsaida, while he dismissed the crowd. And after he had taken leave of them, he went up on the mountain to pray. And when evening came, the boat was out on the sea, and he was alone on the land. And he saw that they were making headway painfully, for the wind was against them. And about the fourth watch of the night he came to them, walking on the sea. He meant to pass by them, but when they saw him walking on the sea they thought it was a ghost, and cried out, for they all saw him and were terrified. But immediately he spoke to them and said, “Take heart; it is I. Do not be afraid.” And he got into the boat with them, and the wind ceased. And they were utterly astounded, for they did not understand about the loaves, but their hearts were hardened.
When they had crossed over, they came to land at Gennesaret and moored to the shore. And when they got out of the boat, the people immediately recognized him and ran about the whole region and began to bring the sick people on their beds to wherever they heard he was. And wherever he came, in villages, cities, or countryside, they laid the sick in the marketplaces and implored him that they might touch even the fringe of his garment. And as many as touched it were made well (Mark 6:45-56).
Some people actually like storms.
In her book, A Man Called Peter, Catherine Marshall wrote about one of the idiosyncrasies of her famous Scottish-Presbyterian-preacher-husband:
“To step into the living room of our home was like entering a marine museum. Seascapes were everywhere, Peter had seen to that. A huge reproduction of Winslow Homer’s ‘Nor-Easter’ hung over the fireplace.”
He had them in the living room on every wall, in the dining room, in the bedrooms. He allowed no landscape, no still life, only seascapes. He would say,
“When you stand before Homer’s Nor-easter,’ do you not thrill to that rolling, majestic, angry sea, so that you can almost feel the cold spray on your face and lick the brine from your lips?”
One of my favorite songs is a song by Dan Fogelberg called, “The Reach.” He writes about life in a New England fishing village. The rhythm of the music, and the power of his writing makes one feel like you are there with the Maine lobstermen going out into the “reach.” The salty, icy sea spray seems to drench you as you hear the music:
The wind brings a chill
There’s a frost on the sill in the morning
It creeps through the door
At the edge of the shore
Ice is forming
Soon the northers will bluster and blow
And the woods will be whitened
And the Reach will lie frozen
For the lost and unchosen to row—
And the morning will
As the waves crash and fall
And the Reach like a siren sings
As she beckons and calls
As the coastline recedes from view
And the seas swell and roll
I will take from the Reach
All that she has to teach
To the depths of my soul.
The early Church loved to picture the Christian life as disciples in a boat, with only their heads showing, and with waves crashing against the sides. It was for them a perfect depiction of the Christian life. Were they were taking from the reach all that she had to teach to the depth of their souls?
No. They were taking the truth of Scripture and applying it to their lives. In between the miracle of saving faith and the promise of heaven lies the reach in the story of their lives. There we see the stretch of sea, filled so often with storms, and the rowing against the wind as they struggle in the boat.
In our passage we follow Jesus and the disciples from the banks of Galilee with crowds amassing over the miracle of the feeding of the five thousand. The disciples are beginning to see that ministry does not stand still. There is a Plan, not fully discernable by the disciples, but Jesus knows it. Beneath the miraculous story of Jesus and His power is a depth that will take a lifetime to understand. With the disciples, we also come to see that we are on our way…somewhere. And this Savior is not like we thought Him to be. There is no earthly kingdom being built. There is a Plan. To get to the Plan we must go to the other side. To get to the other side, we are going to have to go through a storm.
Today, as we study this passage, we want to see how the Holy Spirit is assuring us that Jesus is Lord of the Storm.
When we say “storm” we mean what the disciples were going through. We mean that place in between the miracles of yesterday and the promises of tomorrow. We mean those seasons of trial and even doubt that come to all of us at one time or another.
Maybe you are in a storm, or maybe you are standing on the hillside launching out and wondering what is out there. Perhaps you have gone through a storm and are in need of reflection and understanding. I pray that Jesus, the Lord of the Storm, will speak to you.
There are four truths revealed in Mark 6:45-52 about the Lord of the Storm that, through the power of the Spirit, will lead us to trust Him in our storms.
Look at the opening verse:
Immediately He made His disciples get in the boat and go before Him to the other side, to Bethsaida.
The amazing thing to notice here is that Jesus “made” His disciples get in the boat.
Matthew puts it in even bolder terms:
He gave orders to go over to the other side (Matthew 8:18).
Having served in the US Army reserves, I know something about orders. Here is an unequivocal command to “get in!” No ifs, ands, or buts! Is this what we expect from Jesus after the feeding of five thousand? Is this what the disciples expected?
Here is the first surprising truth about this passage:
I. The Lord of the Storm sends us into the storm to get to the other side (verse 45).
Mark doesn’t tell us anything about the order Christ gave, but John does tell us what is omitted here and that is the reason:
When the people saw the sign that He had done, they said, “This is indeed the Prophet who is to come into the world!” (John 6:14).
The people, including the disciples, were in danger of domesticating Jesus—turning Him into a local god who would give them what they wanted, rather than recognizing Him as the Savior they needed. After all, you now have a Messiah to do just about whatever you need Him to do: to overthrow Rome or for that matter to deal with your mother-in-law’s stomach problems! But this Messiah would not allow these men, who would be His apostles, to shape Him into a god of their own making. And He wouldn’t allow them to remain the same either. They had to leave where they had been. They had to go to a new place of understanding. And that meant, “Get in the boat. You are going out to sea—alone.”
The feeding of the five thousand had indeed brought Messianic fever. Many wanted the kingdom to come by force (verse 15). There was no doubt that those on Palm Sunday, soon coming, would want the same. But the waving palms and cries of “Hosanna!” were sung out of tune with the purposes of Christ Himself. The feeding of the five thousand was exposing the same inner mistakes. William Lane remarked correctly:
“Jesus refused to be the warrior-Messiah of popular expectations.”
In our passage in Mark 6, this led to Jesus’ order and His retreat to prayer.
Just when things seemed to be going well, our Lord sends us to the other side, for this is not all there is. You see not only were they leaving a mob with a lot of bad ideas about who the Messiah should be, but there were those on the other side who needed Jesus too. The following passage shows us that Christ would bring healing to the sick at Gennesaret.
My family and I, about three times a year, like to watch the great old Andy Griffith classic movie, “No Time for Sergeants.” At the very beginning of the movie we meet this very delicate creature named Sergeant King. His desire is to rest and be quiet and then go off into retirement. He wants no problems, no waves. In fact, Sergeant Orville C. King tells the recruits that they may have heard that the service life was like the waves of the sea (as he makes wave motions with his hands), but he assures them that the service is more like smooth waters (again using hand motions to show smooth water). Of course, he will soon find that his life is anything but tranquil with those inept and needy recruits!
Sometimes Christians resemble that sergeant. Our greatest desire is for a nice, smooth, tranquil life. Now you can have that if you avoid people, avoid following God across to the other side, and avoid being a disciple of Christ. But following Jesus is to cross the sea of life in obedience. To do that means you will, sometimes, perhaps even oftentimes, sail providentially into storms.
We relish the seasons of life, but we cannot possess them or control them any more than those disciples could hold Jesus down. His love was on the move and His heart, in obedience to His Father, was leading Him to another place. To be a disciple is to obediently follow Jesus from one shore to another shore.
Now the hopeful part of this journey is given to us in the following passages. Our second truth to consider from this text is that Jesus, the Lord of the Storm, does more than send His people into the storms.
II. The Lord of the Storm is above the storm and sees us as He is praying (verse 46-48).
And after he had taken leave of them, he went up on the mountain to pray. And when evening came, the boat was out on the sea, and he was alone on the land. And he saw that they were making headway painfully, for the wind was against them. And about the fourth watch of the night he came to them, walking on the sea. He meant to pass by them (Mark 6:46-48).
The beauty of this passage is many-fold and we would do well to pause in order to take it all in. There is healing and new life and blessed assurance in this powerful Biblical picture.
There are four words that I want to use to describe what we find here related to Jesus being above the storm:
1. Submission—Jesus at prayer shows His heart resting in the Father’s will and guarantees His road to Calvary.
Mark establishes a pattern in the prayer retreats of Christ that reveals His absolute obedience to the will of the Father. Jesus withdrew to a solitary place for prayer after the healing activity in Capernaum (Mark 1:35-39). Jesus withdrew from the excited crowds in this passage after the miracle of the loaves, and before the Last Supper and the Garden of Gethsemane. He is doing His Father’s will: going to the cross for our sins, rising again and ascending to heaven as our High Priest. He will not be stopped by popular demands to be an earthly king.
2. Intercession—Jesus’ prayer, as the disciples are at sea, shows how our Savior is our High Priest who ever makes intercession for us as we are in the storms of life.
It is nearing Passover in this text. Matthew Henry wrote:
“It is a comfort to Christ’s disciples in a storm, that their Master is in the heavenly mount, interceding for them.”
One of the greatest comforts in your life, believer, is that while you are in the storm, Jesus is on the throne. While you are in the throes of chaos, Christ is on the throne of sovereignty. While you are crying out for safety, you have been in the palm of His hand before your first cry. Love Him in the storm even more than ever. Seek Him in the wind and waves of your crisis and you will find that He is there. Beyond the sea spray of the crisis is the image of the Lord God Almighty in the flesh, there with you the whole time.
3. Care—Jesus’ watchfulness over us, even as we are in the storm, shows His constant care for us.
This the Savior who says, “I will never leave you nor forsake you.” And can the Lord say that and not mean it? He was watching over the disciples in the sea and He is watching over you.
Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God so that at the proper time he may exalt you, casting all your anxieties on him, because he cares for you (1 Peter 5:6 -7).
4. Mystery—Jesus’ timing for our salvation is mysterious but effective.
Please note (verse 47) that Jesus notices the disciples in the late evening, but doesn’t act until after prayer in the fourth watch. That is 3:00 am! Why did He allow them to row against the wind for so long? Why did He allow them to go off course in the storm? Mystery all. Thus, I must agree with William Barclay when he wrote:
“What happened we do not know, and will never know. The story is shrouded in mystery that defies explanation. What we do know is that he came to them and their storm became a calm. With him beside them nothing mattered more.”
Mystery yes, but Christ was in the mystery.
Why was it that when Mary and Martha dispatched couriers to get Jesus to come and help their brother Lazarus, who was dying, that we read:
Yet when he heard that Lazarus was sick, he stayed where he was two more days (John 11:6).
When Jesus got to the scene, as you know, Lazarus was dead. And so we read in John 11:31, 32:
“Lord,” Martha said to Jesus, “if you had been here, my brother would not have died.” When Mary reached the place where Jesus was and saw him, she fell at his feet and said, “Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died.”
Christ allowed the death of His friend knowing that He would raise him from the dead and show His power. He shows us what He is going to do with those who trust in Him. In the scene in this passage, though we are not told this, it is apparent that Christ is glorified in the storm because, in His perfect timing, He saves the disciples, calms them, and leads them to their destination.
He is like C.S. Lewis’ Aslan, the Lion/Christ figure in C.S. Lewis’ Narnia Chronicles, who appears from over the sea without warning but exactly when he is needed:
“Aslan was among them, though no one had seen him coming.”
I remember watching our son when he was just a toddler during the fellowship times in our church in Kansas. He would scoot across the room away from me. He seemed to enjoy the freedom, but there would come a time when he would look around and make sure he had his mother or me in view. Of course, the truth was: I never lost sight of him. I was watching him even when he wasn’t aware of me. I knew before too long he would look around and he would see me smiling at him. He would feel my embrace as I reached down and picked him up and squeezed him tightly to my heart.
This passage of Scripture tells us something: that in the mysteries of life Jesus will always be there, breaking through the mystery to become our light. Mystery with Jesus leads to glory for God and good for us. This is what Barclay meant when he wrote these words that I can testify to in my own life:
“It is a simple fact of life, a fact which has been proved by countless men and women in every generation, that when Christ is there the storm becomes a calm, the tumult becomes a peace, what cannot be undone is done, the unbearable becomes bearable, and we pass the breaking point and do not break, To walk with Christ will be for us also the conquest of the storm.”
“The conquest of the storm.” I need that. I need to know that to walk with Jesus is to walk through mystery trusting in Christ. That is simply called faith.
Some time ago I came across a wonderful new hymn that I want to share with you:
“Not our choice the wind’s direction,
Unforeseen the calm or gale,
The great ocean swells before us,
And our ship seems small and frail.
Fierce and gleaning is Thy mystery
Drawing us to shores unknown:
Plunge us on with hope and courage
‘Till Thy harbor is our home.”
My dear friend, Jesus invites you to see who He is and trust that “His harbor is your home.” He wants you to see that the winds that seek to destroy you, in the hands of the Lord of the Storm become the winds that bring you home.
Always remember, your Savior sees you, my beloved. He sees you in your storms. He is watching you, Sir, in your job that is challenging you to the hilt. Christ is watching you, Madam, as you are anticipating that operation. He is on the mount, looking into your storm, my dear friend, as you take that test. The fatherly eye of Jesus is on you, my beloved, as you struggle with that decision that must be made soon. Though He comes to you in His own time, according to the secret purposes of His own heart, He is there, ascended to the Promised Land, praying for you.
Consequently, he is able to save to the uttermost those who draw near to God through him, since he always lives to make intercession for them (Hebrews 7:25).
The Lord of the Storm is above the storm, to pray for you, having sent you into the storm to conform you to Himself. This truth is before us as well:
III. The Lord of the Storm walks on the storm, passing by us, coming to us, commanding our safe passage through the storm (verses 48b-50).
And about the fourth watch of the night he came to them, walking on the sea. He meant to pass by them, but when they saw him walking on the sea they thought it was a ghost, and cried out, for they all saw him and were terrified. But immediately he spoke to them and said, “Take heart; it is I. Do not be afraid.”
Oh, I love this passage. If you look in the last part of verse 48, it says, “He meant to pass them by.” Now this was relayed by Peter and written by Mark. For Peter, Jesus was there, the image of God passing by them, showing His love, showing His concern. But they didn’t understand the image. They screamed, thinking He was some sort of water spirit. But He says to them, “It is I” or “I am He.” Does this scene sound familiar? Yet, “they remain unable to grasp the significance of what they are witnessing.”
Is this not the same God who passed by Moses and hid him in the cleft of the rock? He has called Himself, “I AM.”
Is this not the same God who was the fourth image in the fiery furnace with Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego? Do you remember that in Daniel 3:23-25?
And these three men, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, fell down bound into the midst of the burning fiery furnace.
Then Nebuchadnezzar the king was astonished, and rose up in haste, and spake, and said unto his counselors, Did not we cast three men bound into the midst of the fire? They answered and said unto the king, True, O king.
He answered and said, Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the form of the fourth is like the Son of God.
And so the saving work of our Savior moved that pagan king to say:
Praise be to the God of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, who has sent his angel and rescued his servants! They trusted in him and defied the king’s command and were willing to give up their lives rather than serve or worship any god except their own God.
Therefore I decree that the people of any nation or language who say anything against the God of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego be cut into pieces and their houses be turned into piles of rubble, for no other god can save in this way (Daniel 3:28, 29).
It is the same God in Isaiah 43 who tells Israel:
When you pass through the waters, I will be with you; and through the rivers, they shall not overwhelm you; when you walk through the fire you shall not be burned, and the flame shall not consume you. For I AM the Lord your God, the Holy One of Israel, your Savior (Isaiah 43:2, 3a).
Do you hear the cadence and the sequence? God’s people are in trouble. God’s salvation is on the way. God’s love is bringing Him to us in our peril. God’s identification of Himself: “I AM the Lord your God.” And so Jesus, who is this God of old, who is the Ancient of Days, is saying to them and to us: “Do not fear! It is not a ghost! It is not a coincidence! This is not a fluke! It is I AM here for you.”
Some time ago, when I was pastor at First Presbyterian Church in Chattanooga, I was studying Isaiah 43 when my good friend, Dr. Bill Dudley, Senior Pastor of Signal Mountain Presbyterian Church, came with his lovely wife Jakie to speak to our Women in the Church at their Valentine luncheon. They told of how they lost their son in an accident. Bill related how that tragedy sent him into a storm of sorts: a crisis of faith, a crisis of understanding. God led him to this very passage in Isaiah 43:
When you pass through the waters, I will be with you.
Bill and Jakie learned personally through the loss of their son that Jesus is Lord of the Storm.
Friend, are you in a storm? The Good News is: He is passing by. He is there. He will not leave you alone.
Now this leads us to see this fourth truth:
IV. The Lord of the Storm is the Lord of salvation and is in the boat; calming the storm, bringing peace in the midst of the storm, guiding us to the other side (verse 51).
And He got into the boat with them and the wind ceased. And they were utterly astounded, for they did not understand about the loaves, but their hearts were hardened.
Mark links this back to the feeding of the five thousand. They missed it! They saw a miracle but did not think that they were really dealing with the true Bread of Life Himself! They missed the reality of who He was!
Now you know you want Him in your boat. You know you need Him in your stormy marriage. You know He can bring smooth sailing to your relationships. You know that Jesus in the boat will bring you the peace you need on the sea of life, and that He alone can direct you to the place He wants you to go. But do you really know who He is? Do you really know that Jesus is the Savior of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the Savior of Paul? Do you really know that you are dealing with the living God here?
Let the doubt turn to astonishment, and if God is pleased, let that turn to faith-filled wonder. Christ got into the boat with them way back when He was born. Christ got into the boat with humankind way back before the foundation of the earth when, in the face of the fall, in the presence of a rebellion, the beloved Son of the Father said, “Father, not them, but on Me let Your wrath fall.” He got into the boat with us all the way when He was on a cross. He got into the boat all the way when He went to the grave. But He brought peace when He rose from the dead, when He ascended on High, when He took His place as your Mediator, and when He sent His Spirit into your heart and adopted you as His son or daughter.
Now we go through storms of many kinds, but He is there. We are headed to the place, the good land, where He wants us to go.
Will you stop rowing your own boat and let the Master take control? There will not be peace until you do.
I want to end with this thought. Jesus did not rescue the disciples out of the sea. He calmed it so they could continue their voyage. He may not remove you from your sea, but He comes to you to love you, to encourage you, to make the journey with you. He may not remove the thorn, Paul, but in your weakness He is made strong. He may not stop the hand of the Nazis, Dietrich Bonheoffer, but Jesus comes to you so that you begin to see the shore, even as they put the noose around your neck. He may not deliver you, my sister in Christ, from the miscarriage, but Jesus is with you, calming your troubled seas and assuring you that He has your baby in His arms. He may not stop the divorce, my brother, but He is with you to calm your soul as He leads you home.
A few years back I wrote and recorded a song after I read this passage. I wanted to find reconciliation between the promises of God and the mystery of storms. And so I sang,
When the wind and waves of life,
Drove my soul to find relief
I was guided by the storm
To find Jesus underneath
When the storms of life betray
All the promises You’ve made
I will cling to Calvary’s place
I will trust Your sovereign grace
Though Your presence with me goes
I seem to still be tossed and turned
By an unseen enemy
And I know I need to learn
When the storms of life betray
All the promises You’ve made
I will cling to Calvary’s place
I will trust Your sovereign grace
And when life is finally o’er
And I stand before You, Lord
I’ll see the storms that stirred despair
Were the winds that blew me there
When the storms of life betray
All the promises You’ve made
Let me cling to Calvary’s place
Let me trust Your Sovereign Grace
Oh, that we trust Him in the storm. The Cross tells us that we can. The empty tomb tells us that we can. His presence and power in the lives of countless generations of believers who have trusted Him in the storms tell us that we can. For they discovered what we must embrace in our minds and in our hearts: that the winds that seek to wreck your life will be the winds that bring you home, because Jesus Christ is the Lord of your storms.
Now is the day to look through the stinging salty spray of the storm and see the Lord of the Storm walking toward you, with you.
There can be no doubt that this is the Messiah. Jesus Christ is Lord of the Storm. He is the Lord of all. Now what remains is the question only you can answer: “Is He the Lord of your life?”
For Further Study
Barclay, William. The Gospel of Mark New Daily Study Bible. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox Press, 2001.
Brachet, Auguste, and G. W. Kitchin. An Etymological Dictionary of the French Language Clarendon Press Series. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1873.
Fogelberg, Dan. “The Reach,” The Innocent Age. Long Playing album. Los Angeles, CA: © 1981 Sony BMG Music Entertainment, Inc., 1985.
France, R. T. The Gospel of Mark : A Commentary on the Greek Text The New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, 2002.
Garland, David E. Mark The Niv Application Commentary. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Pub. House, 1996.
Lane, William L. The Gospel According to Mark : The English Text with Introduction, Exposition, and Notes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974.
Lewis, C. S., and Pauline Baynes. The Chronicles of Narnia. 1st ed. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2004.
Marshall, Catherine. A Man Called Peter; the Story of Peter Marshall. New York,: McGraw-Hill, 1951.
Matthew Henry Commentary 6.0. Accordance Bible Software for Macintosh.
Milton, Michael Anthony. “Your Sovereign Grace” From the Compact Disc, He Shall Restore, © Michael Anthony Milton; Bethesda Words and Music, Bmi. Chattanooga, TN: Music for Missions, 2005.
 , Matthew Henry Commentary Ver. 6.0 (Accordance Bible Software for Macintosh).”
 Catherine Marshall, A Man Called Peter; the Story of Peter Marshall (New York,: McGraw-Hill, 1951).
 Dan Fogelberg, “The Reach,” The Innocent Age (Los Angeles, CA: © 1981 Sony BMG Music Entertainment, Inc.), Long Playing album.
 For instance, the term we used for the nave of a church, is from the French nef , meaning “a ship,” according to Auguste Brachet and G. W. Kitchin, An Etymological Dictionary of the French Language, Clarendon Press Series (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1873). See also the excellent page on symbols in the early church: http://www.jesuswalk.com/christian-symbols/ship.htm (accessed on March 27, 2010).
 William L. Lane, The Gospel According to Mark : The English Text with Introduction, Exposition, and Notes (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974).
 Mark 6.53-56.
 Warner Brothers Pictures, 1958. This is a great family film!
 Matthew Henry, Commentaries, Accordance Bible Software 6.0.
 William Barclay, The Gospel of Mark, New Daily Study Bible (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox Press, 2001).
 C. S. Lewis and Pauline Baynes, “The Horse and his Boy,” in The Chronicles of Narnia, 1st ed. (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2004) 306.
 From “We, O God, Unite Our Voices” (Crescent Hill Hymn), by Grady Nutt and Paul Duke, as quoted in David E. Garland, Mark, The Niv Application Commentary. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Pub. House, 1996).
 R. T. France, The Gospel of Mark : A Commentary on the Greek Text, The New International Greek Testament Commentary. (Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, 2002).
 Michael Anthony Milton, “Your Sovereign Grace” From the Compact Disc, He Shall Restore, © Michael Anthony Milton; Bethesda Words and Music, Bmi (Chattanooga, TN: Music for Missions).